getblocktemplate ( "template_request" )

If the request parameters include a 'mode' key, that is used to explicitly select between the default 'template' request or a 'proposal'.
It returns data needed to construct a block to work on.
For full specification, see BIPs 22, 23, 9, and 145:
1. template_request         (json object, optional, default={}) A json object in the following spec
       "mode": "str",       (string, optional) This must be set to "template", "proposal" (see BIP 23), or omitted
       "capabilities": [    (json array, optional) A list of strings
         "support",         (string) client side supported feature, 'longpoll', 'coinbasetxn', 'coinbasevalue', 'proposal', 'serverlist', 'workid'

  "version" : n,                    (numeric) The preferred block version
  "previousblockhash" : "xxxx",     (string) The hash of current highest block
  "transactions" : [                (array) contents of non-coinbase transactions that should be included in the next block
         "data" : "xxxx",             (string) transaction data encoded in hexadecimal (byte-for-byte)
         "txid" : "xxxx",             (string) transaction id encoded in little-endian hexadecimal
         "hash" : "xxxx",             (string) hash encoded in little-endian hexadecimal
         "depends" : [                (array) array of numbers 
             n                          (numeric) transactions before this one (by 1-based index in 'transactions' list) that must be present in the final block if this one is
         "fee": n,                    (numeric) difference in value between transaction inputs and outputs (in satoshis); for coinbase transactions, this is a negative number of the total collected block fees (ie, not including the block subsidy); if key is not present, fee is unknown and clients MUST NOT assume there isn't one
         "sigops" : n,                (numeric) total SigOps count, as counted for purposes of block limits; if key is not present, sigop count is unknown and clients MUST NOT assume it is zero
  "coinbaseaux" : {                 (json object) data that should be included in the coinbase's scriptSig content
      "flags" : "xx"                  (string) key name is to be ignored, and value included in scriptSig
  "coinbasevalue" : n,              (numeric) maximum allowable input to coinbase transaction, including the generation award and transaction fees (in satoshis)
  "coinbasetxn" : { ... },          (json object) information for coinbase transaction
  "target" : "xxxx",                (string) The hash target
  "mintime" : xxx,                  (numeric) The minimum timestamp appropriate for next block time in seconds since epoch (Jan 1 1970 GMT)
  "mutable" : [                     (array of string) list of ways the block template may be changed 
     "value"                          (string) A way the block template may be changed, e.g. 'time', 'transactions', 'prevblock'
  "noncerange" : "00000000ffffffff",(string) A range of valid nonces
  "sigoplimit" : n,                 (numeric) limit of sigops in blocks
  "sizelimit" : n,                  (numeric) limit of block size
  "curtime" : ttt,                  (numeric) current timestamp in seconds since epoch (Jan 1 1970 GMT)
  "bits" : "xxxxxxxx",              (string) compressed target of next block
  "height" : n                      (numeric) The height of the next block

> bitcoin-cli getblocktemplate 
> curl --user myusername --data-binary '{"jsonrpc": "1.0", "id":"curltest", "method": "getblocktemplate", "params": [] }' -H 'content-type: text/plain;'